Relevant Publications by C3E Associates

Kurland, J., Pires, S. F., & Marteache, N. (2018). The spatial pattern of redwood burl poaching and implications for prevention. Forest Policy and Economics94, 46-54.

van Doormaal, N., Lemieux, A. M., & Ruiter, S. (2018). Understanding site selection of illegal border crossings into a fenced protected area: a rational choice approach. Crime Science7(1), 7.

Moreto, W.D., & Pires, S.F. (2018) Wildlife Crime: An Environmental Criminology and Crime Science Perspective. Carolina Academic Press.

Bisschop, L., Strobl, S., Viollaz, J. (2017, in press). Getting into deep water: Coastal land loss and state-corporate crime in the Louisiana bayou. British Journal of Criminology.

Kurland, J., Pires, S. F., McFann, S. C., & Moreto, W. D. (2017). Wildlife crime: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. Crime Science, 6(1), 1-15. [paper]

Kurland, J. & Pires, S. F. (2017). Assessing U.S. Wildlife Trafficking Patterns: How Criminology and Conservation Science Can Guide Strategies to Reduce the Illegal Wildlife Trade. Deviant Behavior 38(4), 375-391. [paper]

Moreto, W. D., Cowan, D., & Burton, C. (n.d.). Towards an Intelligence-Led Approach to Address Wildlife Crime in Uganda. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. Advanced Online Publication. doi:

Moreto, W.D., Gau, J.M., Paoline, E.A., & Singh, R. (2017). Occupational Motivation and Intergenerational Linkages of Rangers in Asia. Oryx. Advanced Online Publication. doi:

Moreto, W.D., Brunson, R.K., & Braga, A.A. (2017). “Anything We Do, We Have to Include the Communities”: Law Enforcement Rangers’ Attitudes Towards and Experiences of Community-Ranger Relations in Wildlife Protected Areas in Uganda. British Journal of Criminology 57(4), 924-944. [paper]

Moreto, W.D., & Matusiak, M.C. (2017). “We Fight Wrong Doers”: Law Enforcement Rangers’ Roles, Responsibilities, and Patrol Operations in Uganda. Deviant Behavior 38 (4), 426-447. [paper]

van Uhm, D.P. & Moreto, W.D. (2017). Corruption Within the Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Symbiotic and Antithetical Enterprise. British Journal of Criminology. Advanced Online Publication. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx032. [paper]

Fei Fang, Thanh H. Nguyen, Rob Pickles, Wai Y. Lam, Gopalasamy R. Clements, Bo An, Amandeep Singh, Milind Tambe, & Andrew Lemieux. Deploying PAWS: Field Optimization of the Protection Assistant for Wildlife Security. In Proceedings of the Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, January 2016 (Winner of Deployed Application Award). [paper]

Moreto, W.D. (2016). Occupational Stress among Law Enforcement Rangers: Insights from Uganda. Oryx: The International Journal of Conservation 50(4), 646-654. [paper]

Petrossian, G., Pires, S. F., & D. P. V. Uhm (2016).  An Overview of Seized Illegal Wildlife Entering the United States (2003-2013). Global Crime 17(2), 181-201. [paper]

Petrossian, G. A., Rolf, A., & Clarke, R. V. (2016). Illegal long-line fishing and albatross extinction risk. Oryx, 1-10. [paper]

Pires, S. F., & Petrossian, G. (2016). Understanding Parrot Trafficking Between Illicit Markets in Bolivia: An Application of the CRAVED Model. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 40(1): 63-77. [paper]

Pires, S. F., Schneider, J. & M. Herrera. (2016). Organized Crime or Crime that is Organized? The Parrot Trade in the Neotropics.  Trends in Organized Crime 19(1), 4-20. [paper]

Pires, S. F., Schneider J., M. Herrera, & J. Tella. (2016). Spatial, temporal and age sources of variation in parrot poaching in Bolivia.  Bird Conservation International 26(3), 293-306. [paper]

Alvarado, A., DeStefano, D., Gallardo, E., Ivezic, A., Lu, Q.S., McCarthy, M., Petrossian, G.A., Viollaz, J. (2015). Financial crimes involved in wildlife trafficking. Washington, DC: State Department.

Alvarado, A., DeStefano, D., Guervil, M., Li, C., Nunez, F., Simmons, J.S., Petrossian, G.A., Viollaz, J. (2015). Responses to IUU fishing and wildlife trafficking: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: State Department.

Marteache, N., Viollaz, J., & Petrossian, G.A. (2015). Factors influencing the choice of a safe haven for offloading illegally caught fish: A comparative analysis of developed and developing economies. Crime Science, 4(32), 1-13. [paper]

Moreto, W.D. 2015. Introducing Intelligence-Led Conservation: Bridging Crime and Conservation Science. Crime Science, 4. DOI: 10.1186/s40163-015-0030-]9. [paper]

Moreto, W. D., & Lemieux, A. M. (2015). Poaching in Uganda: Perspectives of Law Enforcement Rangers. Deviant Behavior, (ahead-of-print), 1-21. [paper]

Petrossian, G.A., Marteache, N., & Viollaz, J. (2015). Where do “undocumented” fish land? An empirical assessment of port characteristics for IUU fishing. European Journal on Criminal Policy & Research, 21(3), 337-351. [paper]

Petrossian, G, Weis, J., & Pires, S.  (2015). Factors Affecting Crab and Lobster Species Subject to IUU Fishing. Ocean and Coastal Management, 106: 29-34. [paper]

Pires, S. F. (2015). A CRAVED Analysis of Multiple Illicit Parrot Markets in Peru and Bolivia.  European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(3): 321-336. [paper]

Pires, S. F. (2015). The Heterogeneity of Illicit Parrot Markets in the Neo-Tropics: An Analysis of 7 Neo-Tropical Cities. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(1): 151-166. [paper]

Clarke, R.V., Chetty, K., & Natarajan, M. (2014). Eyes on the Forest: CCTV and Ecotourism in Indian Tiger Reserves. In Lemieux, AM (ed.), Situational Prevention of Poaching. London: Routledge. [book link]

Kim, J.H., Clarke, R.V., & Miller, J. (2014). Poaching and Tiger Populations in Indian Reserves. In Lemieux, AM (ed.), Situational Prevention of Poaching. London: Routledge. [book link]

Moreto, W.D., Brunson, R.K. & Braga, A.A. (2014). ‘Such Misconduct Don’t Make a Good Ranger’: Examining Law Enforcement Ranger Wrongdoing in Uganda. British Journal of Criminology, doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu079. [paper]

Moreto, W.D., & Lemieux, AM. (2014). Law Enforcement Monitoring in Uganda: The Utility of Official Data and Time-Based Ranger Efficiency Measures. In Lemieux, AM (ed.), Situational Prevention of Poaching. London: Routledge. [book link]

Moreto, W. D., & Lemieux, A. M. (2014). From CRAVED to CAPTURED: Introducing a Product-Based Framework to Examine Illegal Wildlife Markets. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 1-18. [paper]

Petrossian, G.A.  (2014). Preventing Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing: A Situational Approach. Biological Conservation, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.005. [paper]

Petrossian, G.A. & Clarke, R.V. (2014). Explaining and Controlling Illegal Commercial Fishing: An Application of the CRAVED Theft Model. British Journal of Criminology, 54(1), 73-90. [paper]

Clarke, R.V., & de By, R.A. (2013). Poaching, Habitat Loss and the Decline of Neotropical Parrots: A Comparative Spatial Analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology. 9(3), 333-353. [paper]

Moreto, W.D., & Clarke, R.V. (2013). Script Analysis of the Transnational Illegal Market in Endangered Species: Dream and Reality. In Leclerc, B., & Wortley, R. (eds.), Cognition and Crime: Offender Decision-Making and Script Analyses. London: Routledge. [book link]

Pires, S. F. (2012).  Parrot Poaching in the Neo-Tropics: A Literature Review. Global Crime, 13: 176-190. [paper]

Pires, S., & Clarke, R.V. (2012). Are Parrots CRAVED? An Analysis of Parrot Poaching in Mexico. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 49(1), 122-146. [paper]

Pires, S.F., & Moreto, W.D. (2012). Preventing Wildlife Crimes: Solutions That Can Overcome the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 17, 101-123. [paper]

Pires, S.F., & Clarke, R.V. (2011). Sequential Foraging, Itinerant Fences and Parrot Poaching in Bolivia. British Journal of Criminology, 51(2), 314-335. [paper]

Lemieux, A.M., & Clarke, R.V. (2009). The International Ban on Ivory Sales and its Effects on Elephant Poaching in Africa. British Journal of Criminology, 49(1), 451-471. [paper]


Collections and Special Issues

Moreto, W.D. (ed.) (2018). Wildlife Crime: From Theory to Practice. Temple University Press.

Moreto, W. D. (2016). Wildlife Crime. Trends in Organized Crime, 19(1). Retrieved:

Pires, S. F. (2015). Wildlife Crime. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(3). Retrieved:

Lemieux, A. M. (2014). Situational prevention of poaching. Routledge. Retrieved: